Starting from Diyarbakir and its prehistoric eras, preserving its importance in every period of history. A natural way of passage between Anatolia and Mesopotamia served as a bridge and became the cradle of various civilizations.
Throughout history, Amida, Amid, Kara Amid, Diyarbakır, Diyarbekir Diyarbakir, the city in the middle of the region in the middle of the Southeastern Anatolia Region called Elcezire at the north end of Mesopotamia
. It has been understood through archaeological investigations that it has occurred in the Chipped Stone and Mesolithic periods. Not Hassun near Silvan, the Dicle River and its arches have been identified with these ancient remnants in Hilar caverns near Ergani.
It is not only about the history of the region but also about the history of the world civilization with its dating of the Taurus Hill near Ergani, which is one of the oldest village settlements in Anatolia which is one of the most beautiful examples of the trot village communities. The technological way of life, also known as the “Neolithic Revolution”, in which the first bases of modern urban civilization, which had been continuously intermittent and intermittent between 7,500 and 5,000 years, were introduced into the production of food from inhabited villages, hunting, Is a vibrant and interesting settlement that includes many provinces in the history of cultural history that have changed with all of the nutritional economy and human-natural environment relations. Wild orchids, lentils, etc., have become known to plants and domestication of the goat has gained importance in the world of science.
The types of buildings revealed in the first village establishment, which was built between 7250 – 6750 BC, also vary. Round plan club buildings, grid planned buildings, canal buildings and cell planned buildings. In this structure; Stone bases, rooms, kitchens. It is also seen that there are increasingly specialized spaces such as depo, cellar workshop, square and cemetery.
The wide basalt plate extending from Karacadağ to the Dicle is located on a wide plain on the eastern edge. Outer Castle and Inner Castle.
During the reign of M. Emperor Constantius in 371 AD, the fortress was repaired and strengthened and turned around the city walls. Thus, the Diyarbakır Castle, which has its general shape, could have come up daily with the additions and repairs made by the civilizations that dominated the city. It is decorated with carvings and embossed motifs bearing the traces of civilization close to the throne that dominate the city, as well as inscriptions surrounding it as a generation over the walls surrounding the bird-shaped image of the city in the shape of a shieldfish. For this reason, it was described by A. Gabriel as “Museum of Open Air Inscriptions”. 5 km. Length. Height 10 – 12 m. Thickness 3-S m. Lt; / RTI & gt; It has a total of 82 burca, with square polygon and round plan, the most important of which are; Goat Burcu, Seven Brother Burcu, Ben-u-Sen Burcu, Nur Burcu.Dur Kale’s four important gates in terms of architectural history opened four important
has. In the north, there is the Mountain Kapl (Harput Gate), Urfa Kapl (Greek Gate) in the west, Mardin Kapl (Tel Kaplsi) in the south and Yeni Kapl (Dicle or Water Kaplisi) in the east. Outside of today’s outer fortress walls, there is a second fortification wall. In 1232 the city was destroyed by the Ayyubid ruler Melik Kamil, who used the stones in the approval of today’s fortifications. Today we can watch the remains of Mardin Kapı and Ben u Sen.
It is located on the northeast corner of the outcrop. Outer Castle ‘is separated from the walls. Viran Tepe, located in the Inner Fortress, is the first settlement point of the city and this hill is surrounded by the ramparts. During the reign of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (1524 – 1526) it was extended from the outside. 16 bastion Inner Kalenin has four gates. Conqueror and Orgun captain open out, Palace and Küpeli Kapdan open to the city.
ULU BEDEN BURCU (EVOLİ BEDEN OR BEN SEN) AND SEVEN BROTHERS BURCU
It is located in the southern part of the walls. In the year 2020, it was built by the architect Cafer Oğlu İbrahim on behalf of Artuklu ruler Melik Salih. The Cylindrical structure, the inscription and double-headed eagle that surround it, the Ulu Body and the Seven Brothers Zodiac, which are quite imposing bastions with winged lion boughs, are similar to each other with plan and …
It is located on the rock mass which is carved to the east of the Mardin Gate. It is the oldest and largest of the signs in the walls. There is an inscription on the bastion that the date of its construction is unknown, indicating that it was approved by Mervanoğulları in 1223 AD. 1 1 This arched arch is used as a temple for a period of time.
It is located in the center of the city. The exact date of construction is unknown. In 639 AD, Diyarbakir was formed by the conversion of the Church of Mor Toma, the largest church in the city conquered by Muslim Arabs. The oldest camel in Anatolia. It is known by Muslims as the 5.Harem-i Sharif. As a result of the plan, Şam Emevi Camu is interpreted as a reflection of Anatolia. All states that have reigned in Diyarbakir have given great importance and have been reprimanded. The inscriptions of the Great Seljuk Meliksah, İnal and Nisanogullarl, the Anatolian Seljuk ruler Giyaseddin Keyhüsrev, the Artukids, the Akkoyuolu ruler Uzun Hasan and many of the Ottoman sultans were seen in various places of the inscription.
ŞEYH MUTHAHAR (FOUR FOOTED MİNARE) MOSQUE
It is also known as Kasım Padishah Mosque. It is located in Balıkçdarbaşı district. The Akkoyunlu Sultan was built by Kasım in 1500. The black and white cut is built with sequential stones. The square minaret, which rises above four sultanas, is the only example in Anatolia. It is thought that the pillars represent 4 sects of Islamic religion and the body of Islam represents Islamic religion.
DEFECTS (HÜSREV PAŞA) HANI
It was built in 1527 by Diyarbakır Governor Hüsrev Pasha together with the glass and the madrasa behind it.
The reason that you are known as Deliler Raw, is the deli that guides the candidates of pilgrimage that will go away. The building, built as two-storey courtyards, has been restored and now serves as a tourist hotel.
HASAN PASA HANI
It is the birthplace of the Grand Mosque. It was built by Governor Hasan Pasha in 1573. It was built as a courtyard with two floors.
In the middle of the courtyard there is a six-columned, upper-dome fountain, sitting in uncovered headers.
KÜL TÜR MERKEZİ (CAHİT SITKI TARANCI EVİ)
This house, which was built by Şaîr Cahit Sıtkı Taranei, is a good example of traditional Diyarbakır houses. In 1973, it was purchased by the Ministry of Culture and organized as a museum. In the museum, Cahit Sıtkı Taranei’s special items, letters and books as well as ethnographic works are exhibited.
It is adjacent to the window to the north of the Grand Mosque. According to the inscriptions in the Medresa, the construction was completed between 1198 and 1199 millennia, beginning in 1223 – 1124, when Artoldu ruler Ebu Muzaffer Sökmen II started. The architect, Mahmut son of Halepli was Cafer. The same architect’s name is also seen on the walls of the walls of the Great Mosque repair book and Devegeçidi Bridge book. Mesudiye Madrasah, which is two storeys, is connected to a single or double eyelid skylight within the open medresel group. It is similar to the style of the Chain School in terms of architecture
CHAIN (SECURITY MEDRESE)
It is in the southwestern part of the Grand Mosque. It was built by the architect Isa Abu Dirhem in 1918 in the millennium BC. It is built as a single storey, connected to one or two eyvanic skylights within an open medresel group.
DICLE (ON EYED) BRIDGE
Outside the Mardin gate to the south of the city and the city is 3 km. Distance. We learn from the inscription on the fact that the day-to-day parts of the bridge with a history that may be related to the city’s founding and development were built by an architect named Yusuf, son of Übeyd, during the period of the Maverans in 1065 BC. The cut was constructed as basalt stone with ten eyes.
Diyarbakir batman way on the Silnab district 24 km. Distance. It was written in his book by Timurtaş Bin-i Artok in 1147 millennium. It is made up of three parts in different lengths, in the form of lines. In the middle, there is a pointed arch with a 38.60 meter clearance, which is seated on the rocks. A. Gabriel gives the following information for the bridge, which is unique to the inscription, the reliefs and the architecture: “In this period when there is no modern account, such a work is admirable and admirable at that time.” Haghia Sophia can easily enter under the Dome of the Camouflage. There is no other bridge in this age when it opens. ”
In the stone arched bridges around the world, the belt is the largest
DIAMOND STREETS (MINISTER)
Walls play an important role in the formation of Diyarbakır streets and houses. As the city limits its expansion, the concentration in the city walls has increased, the houses have become closer and the streets have narrowed. This has increased the number of shaded areas and increased the serenity. In the formation of such squeaky streets, some situations have been created and houses have been separated from the streets by high walls to hide privacy. Basalt paved streets in old Diyarbakır streets with constantly flowing fountains, cleaning streets and folded alive
In traditional handicrafts, jewelery, silk and copper are leading. Silk bug is located in the center, Kulp, Silvan and Lice provinces. The production of silk fabrics, wipes, wool, which is renowned for its stewardship, has declined compared to the previous generation. Other important handicrafts on the ground such as soil works, saddlery, felting, rugs, cigars, saddlebags, embroidered peskir, peshtamal, prayer cover construction, hand weaving, carpet.
POETRY AND WRITERS
Ahmet Arif, Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı, Hicri Izgören, Y Dmaz Odabaşı, Sheikhmus Diken, Ihsan Bicici, Suzan Samanci, Ali Emiri, Esma Ocak, Mıgırdıç Magrosyon, Şevket Baysanoğlu, Ziya Gökalp are the poets and writers that Diyarbakir has brought to the world of literature.
DIYARBAKIR STREETS (SMALLS)
Diyarbakir and its houses are shaped like a wall. Concentration has increased in the inner city where the expansion of the city is restricted, houses are getting closer and the streets are narrowed. This led to the proliferation of shaded areas and the increase in serenity. Such a congestion has created some situations in the formation of sQkaks and the houses are separated from the streets by high walls to provide privacy. Basalt paved streets in the streets of old Diyarbakır are constantly flowing fountains, cleaned and cleaned sofas.
TRADITIONAL HOUSES OF DIYARBAKIR
Having a history of at least five thousand years, Diyarbakir houses have developed as a result of thousands of years of experience and have become the most suitable for the historical identity of the city and the climatic conditions and have gained an architectural style with its characteristic characteristics under the influence of the material. Out-of-doors houses are entered from a modest door that has always been made in the same instance. This door is usually passed through a small hallway into the courtyard. The courtyard is the house horn. For this reason, outside the courtyard, outside the yard does not appear. The courtyards of Diyarbakir houses are filled with colorful roses, flowers, pools and fountains. With its white analogues, called CIS, light with window and eybalite galls, and a rich, elegant motifed window and travel bars, the cheesy gloomy look disappears completely. Because the climate is the most important factor in shaping the Diyarbakir house plan, there are winter and seasonal sections of the houses in the houses. All these sections surround the four sides of the courtyard forming the center of the house. As the best example of Diyarbakır houses composed of two parts to be a harem and salutation; Cemil Pasha Mansion, Iskerder Pasha Mansion,Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Evi Ziya Gokalp House, Esma Ocak House can be given.