Trabzon, which is characterized as the second Istanbul, which is accepted as the symbol of the Black Sea; Is a charming province with its artifacts, natural beauties, rich folklore and favorable climate. The province, which is one of the three empires that the Fatih has destroyed, is very rich due to the historical artifacts. During the 1830 fire many of the ancient artifacts have been exterminated. His major works are:
Gülbahar Hâtun Complex: It was built in 1514 by Gülbahar Hâtun, mother of Yavuz Sultan Selim Han in Gülbahar Hâtun Mahallesi. Although the complex, the madrasah, the allegory, the imaret, the tomb and the hammam came to the scene, the day-to-day casualty and the tomb could be reached. Tomb; It is located to the east of the city. The octagonal planked and dome-shaped turbine is adorned with verse and surahs.
İskenderpaşa Câmii: It was built in 1529 by Vâli Iskender Pasha. Although it is reported that there is a madrasah beside the sources, even the day-to-day remnants can not be reached. The walls of the square-shaped, domed main space are adorned with Turkish motifs. Jami lost his first originality because of the tamars he saw in 1882 and 1973. Minaret is the only honorific.
Semerciler is in Semerkiler Mahalles. Construction history is not certain. In 1820, the domes were built with flat roofs during the tamar. The ceiling and the pulpit are interesting examples of wood carving. Minaret is the only honorific.
Çarşı Câmii: It was built in 1839 by Trabzon Vâlisi Hazînâdâzâde Osman Pasha in Çarşı Mahallesi. In 1964 the dome was covered with bullets. The altar and minbar are marble and they are very beautiful.
Fâtih Câmii: It is also known as Ortahisar Mahallesi or Ortahisar Câmii. It was translated from Kilis to Jaime. The process of the altar and minbar is very beautiful. He has seen tamar in various times.
New Cuma Jami: New Cuma Mahallesindeinir. It was built as a church in the twentieth century. When Ottomans conquered Trabzon, the house was converted and a minada was added to it.
Kudreddin Câmii: Emperor of the Kommenler was built by Anna in 1342 as a church by the daughter of Alexios the Third. In 1665, a single minaret was added to the work, which was translated into the house.
Emir Mehmed Tomb: According to the understanding of Kitab, it was built in 1523 in the name of Emir Mehmed. Türmü is buried with Emir Mehmed and Osman Baba from Sheikh of Trabzon.
Bedesten: It is anticipated that the work which was not made in the construction date was made in the second century. Nowadays, the wooden floor divisions are destroyed, and there are shops which are at the bottom.
Vakıf Han: Bazaar is behind Câmiin and also known as Taşhan. In 1531, Trabzon Vâlisi was built by Iskender Pasha. The shops change color on a wide courtyard, covered with vaults.
Alaca Han: There are no books in Bakırcilarliçi district. He guessed it was done in ten seconds. The tamars lost their originality because of their appearance. There are 11 shops on the first floor and 16 shops on the second floor. Today, it is in danger of collapse.
Paşa Bath: It was built in 1531 by İskender Paşa, the Treasurer of Trabzon. Double bath is on plan.
Hacı Ârif Hamami: Behind Pazarkapi Câmiinin. Estimated to be made in the 18th century. It’s pretty rundown.
İmâret Deresi Su Kemeri: It is on İmaret Reef on the western slope of Trabzon Kalesinin. It was built by Justinianus in the sixth century. Today’s aqueduct is from the 13th century. Cut stone is 30 m in length, 7 m in height, with five eyes.
Kuzgundere Aqueduct: Kalenin kes is built on Kuzgundere. It was built in the third century. It is 8 m long, 6 m high, made of cut and rubble stone, known as İnceköprü. Today it is used in advance to make progress.
Poplar Waterbelt: New Friday in the neighborhood. It is made of cut and rubble stone, 20 m long and 7 m high.
Abdullah Pasha Fountain: It is in Gülbahar Hatun Mahalles. It was built in 1849 by Abdullah Pasha. The rectangle is empirically completed.
Abdülhamîd Fountain: It was built in 1891 in İskender Pasha Mahallesi. Three faucets and his faucet is tucked apart. Abdulhamid Han’s brick is on top of the scroll.
Bridge of Zaganos: It is between Ortahisar and Gülbahar Hâtun neighborhood. It is known that Zaganos Pasha was built in 1467, a small bridge that can descend and descend. The present bridge is 60 m long and has single eye.
Irene Tower: New Cumartesi, in the skirts of Boztepe. The construction date is not certain. The cut stone came to the square with two snakes inside. 1916-1918 was used as an ammunition in the Russian occupation. The roof blown up because of an explosion.
Hagia Sophia Museum: It is located 3 km from the city center. In 1263 the Byzantine Emperor VIII. It was built by Palaiogologos as a church. When Trabzon was conquered by the Ottomans, it was turned into a community. The mosque, repaired in 1864, was converted into a museum in 1957.
Trabzon Castle: It is an old castle. It is divided into three parts as Up, Middle and Lower Hisar. Vaselon Monastery: It is located near the village of Hamuria in Makkah for two hours. M.S. It was built in 317, and in 565 Justinian was appointed. Today it is in ruins. The view is very beautiful. Sümela (Meryem Ana) Monastery: It is a monastery carved by rocks at an altitude of 220 m in the forest at 18 km distance to Maçka. M.S. The museum, which was built in 474 and has 72 rooms, 4 floors, thousands of manuscript books, a museum featuring the imperial and Ottoman sultans and the fermans of the Ottoman sultans, hidden in gold and silver coffers, the image of Virgin Mary made by Luka from ancient aged painters attracts foreign tourists . It was destroyed in 1924 by a fire. Foreign tourists pulled out frescoes on the wall and took them abroad. The rooms are decorated with pictures. It is in the Altındere Val. Kuştul (Hızır-İlyas) Girls’ Monastery: It is located on a rock near Şimşirlik Village, 30 km east of Maçka. The building goes up 93 stairs. The view is beautiful.
Mesire Place: Trabzon is a rich city with natural beauty. It is one of the most beautiful corners of our country with its coasts, forests and green hills like emeralds in all seasons. The main recreational areas are:
Çamburnu: Trabzon-Rize on the state highway 7 km away from Surmene is a natural scene. Çakırgöl: The lake shore is located on the northern slope of Çakırgöl Mountain. Fill the trout. Bulak Village: 11 km away from the city center is famous for its clean air and spring water. There are rural horses in the district. Zigana pass: Değirmensu of around 2510 m in height, it is a place surrounded by the non-fulfillment of summer and winter views of pine forests.
Hot Springs and Icmeler: Trabzon is very rich in terms of sanitary water resources. There are many fortune-telling water sources.
Kisarna and Yomra Drinking: It is in the village of Bengisu in 7 km distance from Trabzon. It is recommended for diseases of stomach, liver, kidney, bowel and biliary tract. There are bottling facilities nearby. There is a promenade at the same time as the casino and tea gardens.
Visit Water (Araklı district), let mineral water (Çaykara district), visiting Lake Water (Maçka district), Sürmene mineral water, tonyamâdensu of Uçarsu mineral water (Akcaabat district), Montenegro Mineral water (Vakfikebir district) now who Mineral (Vakfikebir district), Saraylı to Mineral ( Yomra district), Holy Spring Mineral water (Yomra district), Acısu (Şalpazarı) other healing is water, most of the facilities are inadequate.
The city center rises from the sea in the north to the terraces that are not smooth up to the south of Boztepe. Değirmendere, Kuzgundere (or tannery) and the north south divide Zagnos streams settlement deep in the throat. Zagnos remaining tanneries and streams between high and uneven areas on the form of a table, the remains have been identified in the city’s residential known enes. That’s why the name of the ancient Greek in Trabzon table or trapezoidal / trapezoidal shape of the money “Trapezos” word came from the idea that is gaining weight. In the name of Trabzon, Trapezos was first occupied by the Greek commander Kesnophon. It is found in the ancient source “Anabasis” which describes the events of the 4th century.
The Miletos originating from Ion originated after the Western Anatolia. They came to the Black Sea in the 7th century and founded colonial cities on the coast. Trabzon is also considered among those colonies that are central Sinop and many researchers are showing this period as the first foundation of the city. Indigenous tribes such as Kolkhlar, Driller, and Makron have been living in Trabzon long before.
In the same century, the Black Sea region came under the influx of Kimmerler from the Caucasus and the Scythians. But the question of whether these trends precede or after the establishment of the colonies must be discussed. B.C. In the 6th century, Trabzon entered the sovereignty of the Persians and stayed in the satrapy called Pont Cappadocia.
King Alexander the Great of Macedonia In 334, he ended Persian domination in all Anatolia.
During the confusion that occurred after the sudden death of Alexander, Pont satrab II. Ariantes’ son Mithridates established the Pontus State in the Black Sea with the support of indigenous people. Trabzon, BC It remained within the borders of the Pontus state, which was central Amasya in 280 BC.
B.C. In the first century, the Romans, who grew up in the west, began to occupy Anatolia. The kingdom of Pontus disintegrated when Pompeius, the king of Rome, spoiled the Pontus King V. Mithridates in the Kelkit valley. Thus Trabzon, BC. In 66, he entered the Roman government. BC with Avgustus in Rome Since the year 27, the empire period has begun. In the end of the administrative arrangement of ‘Avgustus’, Trabzon was placed within the vassal state called Pontus Polemoniacus, during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14-37 AD), within the borders of Cappadocia, another administrative section. During the reign of Emperor Nero (54-68), the privilege of being a free city was secured. In this period, Trabzon is included in the books of historians with the definition of “famous” and “rich” cities. In the time of Vespasian (69-79), which emphasized the defense of the eastern border of the Roman Empire, Trabzon was included in Cappadocia-Galatia Province.
As well as being in the whole empire in the period of the famous Roman Emperor Hadrian (117-138), important reconstruction activities have been carried out in Trabzon, and many religious and military buildings, roads, aqueducts and an artificial harbor have been constructed, which can be seen until recently. After Hadrian The brilliant period of Trabzon came to an end, and in 244, the authority to issue money was taken away. On the fronts of the Trabzon coins published in the Roman period are the busts of the Roman emperors and their mythological figures, which have been on the back of the Pontic Kingdom since the time of the Pontus Kingdom, and Greek texts were used.
In 276 Trabzon was attacked by the Goths who raided the entire Eastern Black Sea Region, and the entire city was destroyed in this attack. In the late period of the Roman Empire, in the beginning of the 4th century, we understood from a Latin book in the Trabzon Museum that there was a team building event in Trabzon during the time of the quadruple administration consisting of Diocletian Maximian, Constantinius and Galerius.
When the Roman Empire was divided into two in 395, Trabzon remained within the boundaries of the East Roman / Byzantine Empire, which was central Istanbul. The Byzantine Emperor Justinianus (527-564) restored the city walls in Trabzon and initiated a new zoning activity. During the time of Heraclius (610-641) the empire began to separate from the military territories, and Trabzon became the center of the Khaldia contact, which was established in Teophilos time (829-842).
Muslim Arabs came to Eastern Black Sea and Trabzon in the raids they organized in Anatolia from the beginning of the 8th century.
In 1204 of the Byzantine Empire IV. Upon the passing of the Latin by the Crusades, Alexios and David, the grandchildren of Emperor I Andronikos Komnenos, who escaped from Istanbul, and the Georgian Queen Tamara, independently established the Kingdom of Komnenos in Trabzon in 1204. The Komnenos Kingdom, which was able to maintain its political existence by establishing a marriage bond with the Anatolian Seljuks and paying taxes, was the most brilliant period in the time of Manuel Komnenos I (1238-1265). The “happiest” title is on the coins of Manuel I, which is strengthened economically by the influence of the silver mines in Gümüşhane.
After Bayezid I took Samsun region in 1398, the Kingdom of Komnenos of Trabzon was obliged to pay annual tax to the Ottoman State. David Komnenos, in the period of power (1458-1461) stopped the payment of taxes, pre-paid by the Akkoyunlu State Sultan Uzun Hasan, asking for the return of the Ottomans against the major European countries have proposed an alliance. On top of that, the Ottoman Forces under the leadership of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror surrounded the region and in 1461 seized Trabzon and put an end to the domination of the Komnenos.
In the Ottoman period, Trabzon was first administered by the prince and the municipalities as province and sanjak. The first star-studded is Hızır Bey. In the year of 1470, the star sanctuary was given to the Prince Abdullah at a young age; Abdullah lived in Trabzon until 1479 with his mother Şirin Hatun. Yavuz Sultan Selim was also found as the Sancak Beyi in Trabzon (1491-1512) during the şehtühendi (birth), and his son Sultan Süleyman who was to take the title of Kanuni later was born here.
In the 16th century, Trabzon was transformed into a state converted to the headquarters of this new administrative unit by combining it with the Batam Seraglio. In 1867, a large fire broke out in Trabzon, many public buildings were burned and the city was later reorganized. In 1868, it became a province and besides the central sanjak, Lazistan, Gümüşhane, Canik Sanjaks were also connected here.
During the First World War, the Russians attacked Trabzon (14 April 1916). The striking forces of the Trabzon (Milis) give guerilla warfare during this attack. Trabzonlu ammunition arriving at the port of Trabzon in support of Hamidiye Armored to be sent to the fronts is evacuated in a big excitement and transported to Maçka.
Successful battles against Russians were made in Sultan Murat Yaylasinde (June 10, 1916) in Çaykara, Of’tata Baltacı and Yansu in Arsin, but under the conditions of those years, the enemy could not be prevented from entering Trabzon and the Russians He enters Trabzon. Within a year, ten months, ten days, during which the Russians have been in Trabzon, especially Greeks and Armenians make great tributes to the indigenous people; Countless people kill.
In 1917, Russia had a “Bolshevik Revolution”, and the Tsarist Administration was demolished. Then they start a great panic in the Russian army. This leads to the withdrawal of the Russians from Trabzon. On the other hand, the Turkish Gangs, moving from west to east and gathered in Montenegro, descend into Akçaabat and walk towards Trabzon, commanded by Captain Kahraman Bey, and enter Trabzon on 24 February 1918.
The Great Leader Atatürk comes to Trabzon three times during the Republican period; In 1924, 1930 and 1937, the first time they arrived on September 15, 1924, they were regarded as “ATATÜRK DAY” in Trabzon and this is reported to him.