Istanbul harbor and Maiden’s Tower
In the Marmara Region, there are Kocaeli to the east of Istanbul, the largest province of Turkey, Bursa and Marmara Sea to the south, Tekirdağ to the west, Kirklareli to the north, and Black Sea to the north. The Bosphorus stretches in the north-south direction and joins the Black Sea and the Marmara. It also connects Asia and Europe with two bridges at the same time.
Istanbul is in a plateau position between Trakya and Kocaeli plains, and the height is not very high. It is also divided by the river valleys pouring into the Marmara and the Black Sea. The main elevations of Istanbul’s European side are the extensions of the Istiranca Mountains rising to the east (361 m.) On the Garipkuyu Hill near Yalıköy. On the Asian side, it is the mountains rising on the Kocaeli platosus. These are Aydost Mountain (537 m.), Kayış Mountain (438 m.), Alemdağ (442 m.), Büyük Çamlıca Tepesi (262 m.) And Yusha Tepesi (202 m.
There are short and irregular streams in Istanbul. Most of them fall into the sea and the ponds. Terkos Lake Istici Depth, Kucukcekmece Lake Sazlıdere and Nakkaş Dere, Büyükçekmece Lake Hamzalı, Pebble, Eskice Hills, Alibey and Kagithane Hills to Golden Horn, Riva and Göksu Hills to Black Sea, Marmara Sea Saffron and Sellimandıra The rivers are spilling. In the summer months these waters are reduced in water. They also form outbreaks in the winter months. These include Alibey Dam on the Alibey Creek, Ömerli Dam on the Riva River, Darlık Dam on the Darlık Stream and Elmalı Dam on the Göksu Stream. In addition to the dam lakes, there are Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece and Terkos lakes in the provincial borders.
The most important of the many valleys that divide the provincial lands are the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. However, most of these boats are now in settlements. River valleys are used as agricultural areas.
The highlands of the Black Sea coast are covered with forests. On the Marmara coast there are beach-like settlements. These are Silivri, Selimpasa, Kumburgaz, Buyukcekmece, Küçükçekmece, Dragos, Tuzla, Yalıköy (Podima), Karaburun, Kısırkaya, Kumkoy (Kilyos), Demirciköy, Riva and Agva. The area of the province is 5.220 km2 and the total population is 10.072.447.
The Marmara climate, which is known as the transition climate between the Mediterranean and Black Sea climates in Istanbul, is dominant. Summers in the southern Marmara coast are hot and arid, while winters are mild, the summers of the Black Sea are warmer and rainy in the summers and cooler in the winters.
Istanbul in economic terms is one of the most developed cities in Turkey. Tourism is predominant in the industrial and commercial economies. In spite of the fact that the majority of industrial establishments are moved out of the province, the city maintains its importance in terms of the manufacturing industry.
The real development in Istanbul industry started after the Republic. After the 1950s, accelerated capital accumulation, support provided by the private sector, industry and trade enabled Istanbul to become a leading city.
Hagia Sophia Mosque
Istanbul has become one of the leading tourism centers of Turkey with its natural beauty, its rich cultural assets, its development in terms of transportation and accommodation. Most of the foreign tourists coming to Turkey are coming from Istanbul.
Throughout history, the promenade locations of Istanbul were famous. However, the result of distorted structuring has largely been lost.
The main sites of the prospective recreational areas are Emirgân Korusu, Gülhane Park, Yıldız Park, Çamlıca hill and Adalar. Also in Kemerburgaz, Aziz Paşa Forest, Odayeri; Çilingoz and İnceğiz in Çatalca; In Belek Forest in Sarıyer, Major Fountain, Kurt Kemeri and Fatih Forest; Dilburnu, Değirmenburnu and Kalpazankaya in the Islands; Taşdelen in Alemdağ, Kaynakdolduran; Kavacık and Hacet Stream in Anadolu Hisarı; Beykoz has the Caracalak Forest and its promenade sites. In addition, Kuzguncuk, Yıldız, Kandilli, Vaniköy, Bebek, Emirgan, Çubuklu, Abrahampaşa, Beykoz, Tarabya, Büyükdere groves also complete them.
The share of agriculture in the Istanbul economy is very small. It is also today that the food products that started in the Byzantine and Ottoman periods came from the outside and transferred to the Istanbul markets. Large parts of the province’s agricultural areas are reserved for structuring. Until the 1950s, the need to be met from the vineyards, gardens and gardens in and around the city did not remain today. Silivri, Çatalca, Şile, such as the limited amount of agriculture is being done. Here, besides wheat, apple, pear, oat, moon flower and onion, vegetable crops are made. Livestock and poultry are also carried out in the same provinces. On the other hand, fishing has a different place in Istanbul life.
The cities that are important for Istanbul’s underground riches are Çatalca, Şile, Bakırköy, Kartal, Gaziosmanpaşa, Sarıyer, Beykoz, Eyüp. In Şile region, bentonite, clay, industrial sand, brick, tile hammaddesi and lignite; Cement raw materials in Bakirkoy; Tartan and cement raw materials in Kartal region; Kaolin in Gaziosmanpaşa region; Clay, industrial sand and kaolin in Sarıyer region; There are lignite deposits in clay and Ağaçlı Village in Eyüp region.
Throughout history, Istanbul has been named in various forms. Sources indicate that Istanbul has around 135 names. None of the big cities of the world have been recognized by so many names. However, the names of Istanbul can not be limited according to a strict chronology.
It is the oldest known name Licus (Ligos) of the historical peninsula, the first settlement of the city. This name was the name of the place that descended from the right of Lekop Derince flowing to the historical peninsula (Eminönü region) to Golden Horn valley. Later, it was named Byzantion, which developed as an ancient city instead. This name given to the memory of Bizas, the founder of the city, became a name of an empire over time.
Some of the adjectives given to the names and cities of Istanbul in various languages are: Secunda Roma (II.Roma), Nova Roma (New Rome), Roma Orientum, Megalipolis (Great City), Kalipolis (Good City), Constantinople (Constantinople) Islamic Republic of Turkey, Islamic Republic of Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Saltana, Der Aliyye, Der-i Devlet, Dergâh-i Selat, Dersaadet and Istanbul.
Rumelihisarı Halil Pasha Tower
Byzantion was founded during the great Greek immigrations in the middle of the seventeenth century BC and pottery fragments were found in the vicinity of Sarayburnu. The oldest settlement around Istanbul is Fikirtepe, Çatalca, Dudullu, Ümraniye, Pendik, Davutpaşa, Kilyos and Ambarlı on the Anatolian side. This area is known to have been inhabited since the beginning of the 3000 BC in the Chalcolithic Age. However, 20 km. The finds in Yarımburgaz Cave on a rocky hill in the north of Kucukcekmece on the west show that the settlement started from the Middle Paleolithic Age (5000-3000 BC).
Indeed, this cave was considered a sacred place at the time of the Byzantines. Despite this, the first city, a natural bay 7.5 km. It is suggested that it was founded in Silivritepe in the mountainous and high burial between Alibey and Kağıthane Rifts on the top of Golden Horn (Keras) in the length. It is also known that today it is known as Sarayburnu and is a residential area surrounded by city walls. Plinius mentions that there is a village called Lygos in this area. VII- VII. In the 16th century, the Megarans came to the Bosphorus from the Aegean and Marmara coasts and settled in Sarayburnu (Akra), probably around Khalkedon (Kadıköy) before establishing their cities on the Trak settlement. In this period, it is known that at the end of Golden Horn, in Galata region and in Hrisopolis (Uskudar), colony settlements coming from Greece.
The settlement in Sarayburnu later became known as Byzantion, and the other parts became the outer areas of Constantinople. After this period, BC. Persia in 513 BC Sparta, 479 BC. After 477, the Athenians dominated here. Kent, BC. King of Macedonia at 340-339 II. It was collected in the hands of Philippus, developed around Hellenistic Byzantium, Sirkeci, Sultanahmet and Ahırkapı, all structures are gathered in the ancient acropolis Topkapi Palace and its surrounding area. The city in the acropolis is surrounded by solid walls made of stone blocks. There were Trakion Gate and 27 towers to the west of the walls. Located on a hill near Sarayburnu, the Acropolis, where the palace, Zeus, Athena, Artemis-Selene and Poseidon temples, baths, gymnasium, agora, stadium and theater were located, was surrounded by a separate wall. In the middle of an Agora with a rectangular plan, surrounded by porticus near the Acropolis, Apollon had a bronze sculpture of Helios. In the west of Agoran there was another square in memory of a battle against the Thracians. It was also in the Akhylleos Hammam, the biggest bath in the city. The waters brought from Thrace through water channels gathered in open and closed cisterns inside the city. The necropolis (cemetery) was also in the west, outside the walls. BC II. Until the end of the century, surrounded by high walls, Byzantion was a rich city. The income from this fishery was the source of this level of well-being, the productivity of the tax and land purchased from the ships crossing the Bosphorus. This situation lasted until the turmoil in 1993, when the Roman Empire caused the throne of the throne.
The town, which was destroyed in great measure before the reign of Septimus Severius (193-211), which took over the government of the state, and which was later rebuilt to a larger scale, was recognized as anatheaton in the name of his son Aurelius Antoninus Caracalla. It was built by Septimus Severus from Sirkeci to Çemberlitaş and from there to the Sea of Marmara in the east, but not to the day.
The city center was equipped with monumental constructions, including the baths Apollon-Helios and the Aphrodite sanctuaries and the theater. The necropolis (cemetery) was located in the area between Cemberlitas and Beyazıt. The main roads of time were limited to two pillars, and the most famous of these was Mese Caddesi, which followed the Divanyolu (Yeniçeriler Street) route.
After the division of the Roman Empire into two, Constantinople began to be restructured. However, they were damaged due to fire, earthquake, siege and rebellion, and most of the remains were not reached daily. During the Byzantine period, the city was gathered around the Hippodrome, Hagia Sophia, Hagia Eirene and the Grand Palace which stretched out to Sarayburnu, which was built around the acropolis. Emperor Theodosius II. At the time the city was enlarged and the ramparts were extended to the area descending from Edirnekapı today to Balat. In the city churches and monasteries were built. The commercial center of the city was located in the area extending from Hippodrom to the present Beyazıt Square. Also decorated with various squares, columns and sculptures. Almost all of them could be as good as daylight.
From the Byzantine emperors Arcadius (395-408), II.Theodesius, II.Iustinianus (527-565), Thephios, III.Mikhael added new structures to the city. Nevertheless, the historical peninsula of the city has been greatly influenced by various rebellions and has been destroyed from time to time. Istanbul patriarch Ioannes Chrisosthomos, the wife of Emperor Arcadius, rebelled against Eudoksia, and many of the buildings in the city, especially Haghia Sophia, were destroyed.
The Nika Uprising (532), which puts the life and the fortune of II.Iustinianus in jeopardy, could be suppressed with the support of his wife Theodora and commander Belisarios. After this uprising, fires broke out almost everywhere in the city, Hagia Sophia, Hagia Eireni and Samson Ksenodokion were damaged. Subsequently, the 732 and 740 earthquakes caused the destruction of the city’s major monuments. Meanwhile, Hagia Sophia, considered the symbol of divine wisdom, was rebuilt after the Nica Revolution.
During the Byzantine era, Istanbul was improved a little more each day, the settlements were increased, the constructions were concentrated and the Hippodrome decorated with various sculptures was renovated. The Great Palace, which consists of various structures from the Hippodrom to the Marmara, was built. In the historical peninsula, great roads and streets were opened.
It is known that the Romans decorated the cities with stones and sculptures. By the Byzantines, they set columns in various places of the city and placed the statues of their emperors on them.
The Ottomans first surrounded Constantinople in Sultan Yıldırım Beyazıt (1389-1402). Yıldırım Beyazıt built the present Anatolian Fortress in 1396 to prevent the aid from the Black Sea. In Fatih Sultan Mehmet (1451-1481) he built Rumeli Hisari against him and controlled the Bosphorus. Thus, among the studies that started for the conquest of Istanbul, large sums required for the siege were removed, a strong navy consisting of 12 galleys was formed, the number of the armies was increased and all the ways were taken to prevent the help. Meanwhile, Galata, which was in the hands of the Genoese, was kept neutral during the war. The Ottomans were seen in front of the city walls on April 2, 1453, and after nearly two months of hunting, the city was seized on 24 May 1453.
After the conquest of Istanbul, first of all, the ruins of the city were restored, the security of the Byzantines was ensured and new settlement areas were established and Turks were placed. Istanbul is divided into four administrative units. One of them was Suriçi, which is the center of the empire, the others Eyüp administration, which is called Bilad-i Selase, Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece, Çatalca and Silivri, the others were Galata and Üsküdar. Thus the capital of the Ottoman Empire was moved to Istanbul and a new era began.
During the reign of Sultan Bayezid II, the city suffered a great deal of damage in the earthquake, and it was rebuilt in 1510. During the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent, a city plan was built and developed in Istanbul. The works belonging to the Classical Period of the Ottoman architecture were made by Mimar Sinan and the architects who did not adopt his school. In this period, Istanbul has reached its brightest position.
In the Ottoman period, the appearance of the city and its social life have completely changed. However, the city suffered from earthquakes, sellers, fires and epidemics.
During the period of the Grand Vizier of Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha (1718-1730), the Fire Department was established, the first printing house was opened and the appearance of Istanbul changed with the new structuring, and the westernization process got faster. In the meantime, Tanzimat Fermanı was declared in Gülhane, the outer garden of Topkapi Palace, and westernization was formally revealed. As a result, in Istanbul life, education, architecture, industrial establishments have seen great changes. In this period, the city started to expand towards new residential areas.
On the historical peninsula Bakırköy, towards Yeşilköy, towards Galata and Taksim Maçka; The construction in the Bosphorus gained momentum and expanded towards Sarıyer. On the other side the city has grown up to Bostancı and Beykoz in Anatolia. In this period, important developments were made in infrastructure and city services, the bridge connecting Galata and Eminönü was built, and the 3rd Metro (Tunnel) of the world coming from Karaköy to Beyoğlu entered service. Rumeli Railway, Establishment of Company-i Hayriye which makes intra-city maritime transport, establishment of Şehremaneti (municipality) municipality and other municipal offices, the withdrawal of the first telegraph line, establishment of the Ministry of Gendarme and opening of the police stations connected to it, service of the Foundation Gureba Hospital And Horse Tram Company are some of these developments.
The beginning of the XIX th century and the XX th century became the most complicated period of the Ottoman State. From this, Istanbul suffered great damage. The collapse of the battles that resulted in successive reflections reflected in Istanbul. Introduction of the Constitution of the First Constitution (1876), the declaration of the Constitution of the Second Constitution (1908), the entrance of the March 31 Incident and the Movement Army into Istanbul (1909) and the abduction of II.Abdulhamit and the arrival of the Russians to Yesilkoy in the Ottoman-Russian War , The advance of the Bulgarians to the Catalans in the Balkan Wars (1912) and the beginning of the First World War are the most important events that have affected Istanbul in this period.
The beginning of World War I, the signing of the Mondros Armistice (October 30, 1918) was the greatest cause of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Meetings held in Sultanahmet in Istanbul to condemn the occupation of Izmir by the Greeks on 23-30 May 1919 are the most important events of Istanbul’s history. After that, Istanbul was occupied by Entente States on March 15-16, 1920 and Heyet-i Mebusan was closed.
After the War of Independence, which was won under the leadership of Atatürk, the new Turkish Republic, which was established as the headquarters of Ankara, declared that the Ottoman Empire ended and the Turkish Grand National Assembly (Parliament) was established in November 1, 1922. The last Ottoman Sultan VI.Mehmet (Vahidettin) abandoned Istanbul on November 17, 1922, and the Entente States then left Istanbul. The army of the new Republic of Turkey entered Istanbul on 6 October 1923 and the second conquest of Istanbul was realized. After that, Istanbul has lost its centrist capital function.
Main historical monuments in Istanbul:
Istanbul is a city that combines the works of Eastern Roman, Ottoman and Republican periods together. Byzantine palaces, Byzantine cisterns, aqueducts, walls, squares, stitched stones and hippodrome are the works reached from the East Roman (Byzantine), especially Byzantine churches such as Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irini (after the conquest of Istanbul these churches are turned into the majority). In the Ottoman period, religious buildings in the Early Period, Classical Period, Baroque, Rokkoko, Ampir and Neo-Classical styles, prayers, mosques, caravanserais, waterways, Mevlevi habits and convents, medreselers, inns, baths, fountains, Monuments, historical buildings, bridges, palaces, tramps, boats, mansions and monuments reflecting the examples of Turkish civil architecture, monuments of the Republican era,
In addition, the museums that gather all the works of civilization history are also in this city.